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- 07/03/13--08:00: _米国における包括的アプローチに関する一...
- 07/03/13--08:00: _米国における教育委員会による貧困層への...
- 07/03/13--08:00: _ユースサービスと居場所 : アメリカの...
- 07/03/13--08:00: _インクルーシブ教育の基盤となる学級経営...
- 07/03/13--08:00: _にこにこルームの学習支援による効果に関...
- 07/03/13--08:00: _体育授業の力量形成に関する一考察 : ...
- 07/10/13--08:00: _たたら吹製鉄の成立と展開
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Epicardial Atrial M...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Core-to-Rydberg ban...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Creating vortons an...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Three-Dimensional E...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Highly Energetic Ex...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _On the role of comp...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _How Weak Values Eme...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Clock synchronizati...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Effect of Oxygen Co...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _MMP-10/Stromelysin-...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Immunological and R...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Estimation of Fish ...
- 07/17/13--08:00: _Characterization of...
- 07/03/13--08:00: 米国における包括的アプローチに関する一考察 : PBISの視察から
- 07/03/13--08:00: ユースサービスと居場所 : アメリカのユースサービスの実際と日本のユースサービスの実際との比較
- 07/03/13--08:00: インクルーシブ教育の基盤となる学級経営に関する一考察 : 発達障害等の児童を包含する自治的な学級集団づくり
- 07/03/13--08:00: にこにこルームの学習支援による効果に関する学生・小学生・保護者の比較(5) : 平成23年度の質問紙調査
- 07/03/13--08:00: 体育授業の力量形成に関する一考察 : 小学校教諭Aのライフヒストリーにおける体育授業観を中心に
- 07/10/13--08:00: たたら吹製鉄の成立と展開
- 07/17/13--08:00: Highly Energetic Expansion of SN2010bh Associated with GRB 100316D
- 07/17/13--08:00: Clock synchronization using maximal multipartite entanglement
- 07/17/13--08:00: MMP-10/Stromelysin-2 Promotes Invasion of Head and Neck Cancer
- 07/17/13--08:00: Estimation of Fish Biomass Using Environmental DNA
長江, 綾子 , 山崎, 茜 , 中村, 孝 , 枝廣, 和憲 , エリクソン, ユキコ , 栗原, 慎二 ; 学校教育実践学研究 Vol.19 page.73-82 (2013-03-21) ; The purpose of this study is to obtain some ideas about Comprehensive School Counseling and Guidance Approach in the United States from the literature and PBIS inspection. From this inspection and the literature, we learnt 1) Common purpose, information and approach 2) Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors and intervention, 3) Evidence- based intervention, 4) Clear set of evaluation (Check list) system. Also, in the inspection, we learnt that teachers analysis childrens behavior by data from check list in multiple perspectives, and it connects their intervention. We got to see the system to connect this data and intervention. Like this way, we chanced to see the system with cases, in which data connected with concrete intervention or fixing intervention leading the result.
中村, 孝 , 枝廣, 和憲 , 長江, 綾子 , 山崎, 茜 , 米沢, 崇 , 栗原, 慎二 ; 学校教育実践学研究 Vol.19 page.65-71 (2013-03-21) ; The present study aimed to report the inspection of a support program in US by Department of Education in New York that focused on children in poverty group family to pass high school entrance examination and in order to break a cycle of poverty. We leant 3 things, 1) new programs in Hiroshima city and New York city both had possibility to break the cycle of poverty while ordinal programs done by government were just enough for keeping up, 2) the program in NY ensured quality by collaboration between Department of Education and some companies 3) data which shows clear result must be necessary to claim fond for the program.
枝廣, 和憲 , 中村, 孝 , 山崎, 茜 , 長江, 綾子 , 栗原, 慎二 ; 学校教育実践学研究 Vol.19 page.57-64 (2013-03-21) ; US has unique Youth Service systems. This paper introduces the systems and programs of Youth Service based on the inspection of The Door, and supplies the Point of View to Japanese education. In US very big issue is income inequality. Health and social problem are closely related to inequality within rich countries. The Doors mission is to empower young people to reach their potential by providing comprehensive youth development services in a diverse and caring environment. Each year The Door serves more than 11,000 young people from all over New York City, with a wide range of services including reproductive health care and education, mental health counseling and crisis assistance, legal assistance, GED and ESOL classes, tutoring and homework help, college preparation services, career development, job training and placement, supportive housing, sports and recreational activities, arts, and nutritious meals - all for free, completely confidentially, and under one roof. Thus, in US diverse programs were very impressive and they give Japanese education a lot of suggestions.
若松, 昭彦 , 谷中, 龍三 ; 学校教育実践学研究 Vol.19 page.45-55 (2013-03-21) ; Presently, there are many issues that impede the sound development of children such as class disruption, bullying, truancy and so on. The creation of autonomous class groups through leadership development that need not rely on teachers is considered a basic measure to tackle these problems. Developing the sociality and sense of self-affirmation in children through positive activities in a safe and secure environment at each grade will also stoke their desire in adopting a more positive attitude towards learning and school life. While this type of autonomous class group is also inclusive to children of different personalities, e.g. developmental disorders, underachiever, it needs to be maintained continuously starting from the junior years in elementary school. Consequently, the training and development of teachers is considered to be a most urgent task. This manuscript therefore introduces a part of the educational practice of the second author who has been involved in the formation of class groups through leadership development for many years.
児玉, 真樹子 , 岡, 直樹 , 小島, 奈々恵 , 木舩, 憲幸 , 外山, 智絵 ; 学校教育実践学研究 Vol.19 page.37-43 (2013-03-21) ; In this study, the effects of Niko Niko Rooms educational support program perceived by university students, elementary students, and guardians were compared. 21 university students, 21 elementary students, and 21 guardians who took part in the educational support program held in 2011 answered questionnaires measuring ability of university students, degrees of satisfactions, and degrees of interests. Comparisons between university students and elementary students, between university students and guardians, between elementary students and guardians, and among university students, elementary students, and guardians were made. University students tended to underestimate their educational ability, compared to elementary students. Overall, university students, elementary students, and guardians positively evaluated the effects of the educational support program.
木原, 成一郎 , 村上, 彰彦 ; 学校教育実践学研究 Vol.19 page.247-258 (2013-03-21) ; This study aims to clarify what opportunity made Elementary School Teacher A hold his view of teaching in physical education while he was engaged in an elementary school for 24 years. The results are summarized as following points. 1. Teacher A could get his teaching style of physical education at his first school of appointment, as his mentor advised professionally and mentally very well and good colleagues showed their teaching for his teaching model. 2. Teacher A developed professionally about teaching in physical education through in-service training in the physical education group for elementary school teachers of Y City. 3. Teacher A took the opportunity of facing a pupils difficulty for learning physical education to begin exploring his view of teaching in physical education 4. Teacher A took the opportunity of lesson study about his teaching in physical education at the prefectural education center to begin establishing his view of teaching in physical education. 5. Teacher A developed professionally about teaching in physical education because he thought we had the expertise of teaching in physical education at elementary schools.
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Sueda, Taijiro , Uchida, Naomichi , Takahashi, Shinya , Takasaki, Taiichi , Kurosaki, Tatsuya , Katayama, Keijiro , Imai, Katsuhiko ; Circulation Journal Vol.76 no.4 page.852-859 (2012) ; Background: The pulmonary veins (PV) and posterior left atrium (LA) may contribute to the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). We evaluated whether simple epicardial electrophysiological mapping can predict elimination of chronic AF after the box PV isolation procedure. Methods and Results: Using a computerized 48-channel mapping system, we performed intraoperative atrial mapping in 16 patients with chronic AF associated with mitral valve (MV) disease. Patients ages ranged from 48 to 76 years (mean, 61.4 years). AF duration ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 7.5 +/- 5.4 years). Simple box PV isolation was performed during the MV operation. Regular and repetitive activation was found in the LA of 12 of 16 patients, and irregular and chaotic activation was found in both atria in 4 of 16 patients; 12 patients with regular and repetitive activation of the LA were treated by box PV isolation and the other 4 patients with irregular and chaotic activation in both atria did not recover sinus rhythm after this procedure. AF-free rate was significantly higher in patients with regular and repetitive activation of the LA (P
Yamanaka, Takeshi , Tabayashi, Kiyohiko , Takahashi, Osamu , Tanaka, Kenichiro , Namatame, Hirofumi , Taniguchi, Masaki ; Journal of Chemical Physics Vol.136 no.1 page.014308 (2012) ; Nitrogen 1s (N 1s) core-to-Rydberg excitation spectra of hydrogen-bonded clusters of ammonia (AM) have been studied in the small cluster regime of beam conditions with time-of-flight (TOF) fragmentmass spectroscopy. By monitoring partial-ion-yield spectra of cluster-origin products, "cluster" specific excitation spectra could be recorded. Comparison of the "cluster" band with "monomer" band revealed that the first resonance bands of clusters corresponding to N 1s -> 3sa(1)/3pe of AM monomer are considerably broadened. The changes of the experimental core-to-Rydberg transitions Delta FWHM (N 1s -> 3sa(1)/3pe) = similar to 0.20/similar to 0.50 eV compare well with the x ray absorption spectra of the clusters generated by using density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The broadening of the core-to-Rydberg bands in small clusters is interpreted as being primarily due to the splitting of non-equivalent core-hole N 1s states caused by both electrostatic core-hole and hydrogen-bonding (H(3)N center dot center dot center dot H-NH(2)) interactions upon dimerization. Under Cs dimer configuration, core-electron binding energy of H-N (H-donor) is significantly decreased by the intermolecular core-hole interaction and causes notable redshifts of core-excitation energies, whereas that of lone-pair nitrogen (H-acceptor) is slightly increased and results in appreciable blueshifts in the core-excitation bands. The result of the hydrogen-bonding interaction strongly appears in the n-sigma* orbital correlation, destabilizing H-N donor Rydberg states in the direction opposite to the core-hole interaction, when excited N atom with H-N donor configuration strongly possesses the Rydberg component of anti-bonding sigma* (N-H) character. Contributions of other cyclic H-bonded clusters (AM)(n) with n >= 3 to the spectral changes of the N 1s -> 3sa(1)/3pe bands are also examined. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3673778]
Nitta, Muneto , Kasamatsu, Kenichi , Tsubota, Makoto , Takeuchi, Hiromitsu ; Physical Review A Vol.85 no.5 page.053639 (2012) ; We study a mechanism to create a vorton or three-dimensional skyrmion in phase-separated two-component BECs with the order parameters Psi(1) and Psi(2) of the two condensates. We consider a pair of a domain wall (brane) and an antidomain wall (antibrane) stretched by vortices (strings), where the Psi(2) component with a vortex winding is sandwiched by two domains of the Psi(1) component. The vortons appear when the domain wall pair annihilates. Experimentally, this can be realized by preparing the phase separation in the order Psi(1), Psi(2), and Psi(1) components, where the nodal plane of a dark soliton in Psi(1) component is filled with the Psi(2) component with vorticity. By selectively removing the filling Psi(2) component gradually with a resonant laser beam, the collision of the brane and antibrane can be made, creating vortons.
Tanaka, Masaomi , Kawabata, Koji S. , Hattori, Takashi , Mazzali, Paolo A. , Aoki, Kentaro , Iye, Masanori , Maeda, Keiichi , Nomoto, Kenichi , Pian, Elena , Sasaki, Toshiyuki , Yamanaka, Masayuki ; Astrophysical Journal Vol.754 no.1 page.63 (2012) ; We study the multi-dimensional geometry of supernova (SN) explosions by means of spectropolarimetric observations of stripped-envelope SNe, i.e., SNe without a hydrogen-rich layer. We perform spectropolarimetric observations of two stripped-envelope SNe, Type Ib SN 2009jf and Type Ic SN 2009mi. Both objects show non-zero polarization at the wavelength of the strong lines. They also show a loop in the Stokes Q-U diagram, which indicates a non-axisymmetric, three-dimensional ion distribution in the ejecta. We show that five out of six stripped-envelope SNe, which have been observed spectropolarimetrically so far, show such a loop. This implies that a three-dimensional geometry is common in stripped-envelope SNe. We find that stronger lines tend to show higher polarization. This effect is not related to the geometry, and must be corrected for to compare the polarization of different lines or different objects. Even after the correction, however, there remains a dispersion of polarization degree among different objects. Such a dispersion might be caused by three-dimensional clumpy ion distributions viewed from different directions.
Bufano, Filomena , Pian, Elena , Sollerman, Jesper , Benetti, Stefano , Pignata, Giuliano , Valenti, Stefano , Covino, Stefano , Avanzo, Paolo D , Malesani, Daniele , Cappellaro, Enrico , Valle, Massimo Della , Fynbo, Johan , Hjorth, Jens , Mazzali, Paolo A. , Reichart, Daniel E. , Starling, Rhaana L. C. , Turatto, Massimo , Vergani, Susanna D. , Wiersema, Klass , Amati, Lorenzo , Bersier, David , Campana, Sergio , Cano, Zach , Castro-Tirado, Alberto J. , Chincarini, Guido , Elia, Valerio D , Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte , Deng, Jinsong , Ferrero, Patrizia , Filippenko, Alexei V. , Goldoni, Paolo , Gorosabel, Javier , Greiner, Jochen , Hammer, Francois , Jakobsson, Pall , Kaper, Lex , Kawabata, Koji S. , Klose, Sylvio , Levan, Andrew J. , Maeda, Keiichi , Masetti, Nicola , Milvang-Jensen, Bo , Mirabel, Felix I. , Moller, Palle , Nomoto, Kenichi , Palazzi, Eliana , Piranomonte, Silvia , Salvaterra, Ruben , Stratta, Giulia , Tagliaferri, Gianpiero , Tanaka, Masaomi , Tanvir, Nial R. , Wijers, Ralph A. M. J. ; Astrophysical Journal Vol.753 no.1 page.67 (2012) ; We present the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the nearby (z = 0.059) spectroscopically confirmed Type Ic supernova, SN 2010bh, associated with the soft, long-duration gamma-ray burst (X-ray flash) GRB 100316D. Intensive follow-up observations of SN 2010bh were performed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the X-shooter and FORS2 instruments. Thanks to the detailed temporal coverage and the extended wavelength range (3000-24800 angstrom), we obtained an unprecedentedly rich spectral sequence among the hypernovae, making SN 2010bh one of the best studied representatives of this SN class. We find that SN 2010bh has a more rapid rise to maximum brightness (8.0 +/- 1.0 rest-frame days) and a fainter absolute peak luminosity (L-bol approximate to 3 x 10(42) erg s(-1)) than previously observed SN events associated with GRBs. Our estimate of the ejected Ni-56 mass is 0.12 +/- 0.02 M-circle dot. From the broad spectral features, we measure expansion velocities up to 47,000 km s(-1), higher than those of SNe 1998bw (GRB 980425) and 2006aj (GRB 060218). Helium absorption lines He I lambda 5876 and He I 1.083 mu m, blueshifted by similar to 20,000-30,000 km s(-1) and similar to 28,000-38,000 km s(-1), respectively, may be present in the optical spectra. However, the lack of coverage of the He I 2.058 mu m line prevents us from confirming such identifications. The nebular spectrum, taken at similar to 186 days after the explosion, shows a broad but faint [O I] emission at 6340 angstrom. The light curve shape and photospheric expansion velocities of SN 2010bh suggest that we witnessed a highly energetic explosion with a small ejected mass (E-k approximate to 10(52) erg and M-ej approximate to 3 M-circle dot). The observed properties of SN 2010bh further extend the heterogeneity of the class of GRB SNe.
Hofmann, Holger Friedrich ; New Journal of Physics Vol.13 page.103009 (2011) ; Weak measurements carried out between quantum state preparation and post-selection result in complex values for self-adjoint operators, corresponding to complex conditional probabilities for the projections on specific eigenstates. In this paper it is shown that the complex phases of these weak conditional probabilities describe the dynamic response of the system to unitary transformations. Quantum mechanics thus unifies the statistical overlap of different states with the dynamical structure of transformations between these states. Specifically, it is possible to identify the phase of weak conditional probabilities directly with the action of a unitary transform that maximizes the overlap of initial and final states. This action provides a quantitative measure of how much quantum correlations can diverge from the deterministic relations between physical properties expected from classical physics or hidden variable theories. In terms of quantum information, the phases of weak conditional probabilities thus represent the logical tension between sets of three quantum states that is at the heart of quantum paradoxes.
Hofmann, Holger Friedrich ; Physical Review Letters Vol.109 no.2 page.20408 (2012) ; A statistical analysis of optimal universal cloning shows that it is possible to identify an ideal (but nonpositive) copying process that faithfully maps all properties of the original Hilbert space onto two separate quantum systems, resulting in perfect correlations for all observables. The joint probabilities for noncommuting measurements on separate clones then correspond to the real parts of the complex joint probabilities observed in weak measurements on a single system, where the measurements on the two clones replace the corresponding sequence of weak measurement and postselection. The imaginary parts of weak measurement statics can be obtained by replacing the cloning process with a partial swap operation. A controlled-swap operation combines both processes, making the complete weak measurement statistics accessible as a well-defined contribution to the joint probabilities of fully resolved projective measurements on the two output systems.
Changliang, Ren , Hofmann, Holger Friedrich ; Physical Reviews A Vol.86 no.1 page.14301 (2012) ; We propose a multiparty quantum clock synchronization protocol that makes optimal use of the maximal multipartite entanglement of GHZ-type states. To realize the protocol, different versions of maximally entangled eigenstates of collective energy are generated by local transformations that distinguish among different groupings of the parties. The maximal sensitivity of the entangled states to time differences between the local clocks can then be accessed if all parties share the results of their local time-dependent measurements. The efficiency of the protocol is evaluated in terms of the statistical errors in the estimation of time differences and the performance of the protocol is compared to alternative protocols proposed previously.
Takamitsu, Yasuyuki , Ito, Yuuki , Ogawa, Hiroshi , Sano, Tsuneji ; Journal of the Japan Petroleum Institute Vol.55 no.1 page.57-66 (2012) ; The kinetic study on the effect of O-2 concentration in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by ammonia (NH3) was systematically carried out at temperatures below 200 degrees C over Fe- and Cu-loaded beta zeolites. The large difference was observed in the effect of O-2 concentration over the two catalysts: for the Fe-loaded beta zeolite, the NO conversion increased considerably with the O-2 concentration. On the other hand, for the Cu-loaded beta zeolite, increasing the concentration of O-2 did not have a significant impact. In addition, the temperature dependence of the apparent reaction orders was investigated. The apparent reaction order of O-2 decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature, being 0.9 at 150 degrees C and 0.4 at 200 degrees C for the Fe-loaded beta zeolite, and 0.2 at 125 degrees C and 0.1 at 175 degrees C for the Cu-loaded beta zeolite. The fact that the degree of the reduction in the reaction order of O-2 was consisted with that of the increase in the reaction order of NH3 when the reaction temperature was increased strongly suggests that adsorbed NH3 inhibits the adsorption of O-2.
Deraz, Elsayed Mohamed , Kudo, Yasusei , Yoshida, Maki , Obayashi, Mariko , Tsunematsu, Takaaki , Tani, Hirotaka , Siriwardena, Samadarani B. S. M. , Kiekhaee, Mohammad Reza , Qi, Guangying , Iizuka, Shinji , Ogawa, Ikuko , Campisi, Giuseppina , Muzio, Lorenzo Lo , Abiko, Yoshimitsu , Kikuchi, Akira , Takata, Takashi ; PLoS ONE Vol.6 no.10 page.e25438 (2011) ; Background: Periostin, IFN-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) and Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B (Wnt-5b) were previously identified as the invasion promoted genes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by comparing the gene expression profiles between parent and a highly invasive clone. We have previously reported that Periostin and IFITM1 promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells. Here we demonstrated that Wnt-5b overexpression promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells. Moreover, stromelysin-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-10; MMP-10) was identified as a common up-regulated gene among Periostin, IFITM1 and Wnt-5b overexpressing HNSCC cells by using microarray data sets. In this study, we investigated the roles of MMP-10 in the invasion of HNSCC. Methods and Findings: We examined the expression of MMP-10 in HNSCC cases by immunohistochemistry. High expression of MMP-10 was frequently observed and was significantly correlated with the invasiveness and metastasis in HNSCC cases. Next, we examined the roles of MMP-10 in the invasion of HNSCC cells in vitro. Ectopic overexpression of MMP-10 promoted the invasion of HNSCC cells, and knockdown of MMP-10 suppressed the invasion of HNSCC cells. Moreover, MMP-10 knockdown suppressed Periostin and Wnt-5b-promoted invasion. Interestingly, MMP-10 overexpression induced the decreased p38 activity and MMP-10 knockdown induced the increased p38 activity. In addition, treatment with a p38 inhibitor SB203580 in HNSCC cells inhibited the invasion. Conclusions: These results suggest that MMP-10 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of HNSCC, and that invasion driven by MMP-10 is partially associated with p38 MAPK inhibition. We suggest that MMP-10 can be used as a marker for prediction of metastasis in HNSCC.
Nakano, Toshiaki , Lai, Chia-Yun , Goto, Shigeru , Hsu, Li-Wen , Kawamoto, Seiji , Ono, Kazuhisa , Chen, Kuang-Den , Lin, Chih-Che , Chiu, King-Wah , Wang, Chih-Chi , Cheng, Yu-Fan , Chen, Chao-Long ; PLoS ONE Vol.7 no.5 page.e37202 (2012) ; The precise roles of mast cells in liver allograft rejection and tolerance are still unknown. This study aimed to explore the roles of mast cells in immune regulation and liver regeneration for tolerance induction by using rat models of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor c-Kit, which are critical to the migration and development of not only stem cells but also mast cells, significantly increased in the tolerogenic livers as compared with rejected livers. The significant elevation of mast cell tryptase, high-affinity IgE receptor, and histamine suggested the activation of mast cells in liver allografts at the tolerogenic phase after OLT. Immunohistochemical analysis using confocal microscope clearly showed colocalization of mast cells, Foxp3(+) Tregs, gamma delta T cells, and recipient-derived hepatic progenitor cells with higher expression of SCF, IL-9, IL-10, TGF-beta 1, and IL-17 related to immunoregulation and liver regeneration in the donor grafts of a tolerogenic OLT model. Cross-talk among mast cells and other cells was evaluated by in vitro studies demonstrating that syngeneic bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) co-cultured with naive splenocytes or primary hepatocytes significantly increased the population of splenic gamma delta T cells by mitogen stimulation or by mast cell degranulation, and also significantly induced the hepatocyte proliferation, respectively. Our results suggested that mast cells in the donor grafts may play important roles in the induction/maintenance of immune tolerance and liver regeneration resulting in the replacement of hepatic cells from donor to recipient.
Takahara, Teruhiko , Minamoto, Toshifumi , Yamanaka, Hiroki , Doi, Hideyuki , Kawabata, Zenichiro ; PLoS ONE Vol.7 no.4 page.e35868 (2012) ; Environmental DNA (eDNA) from aquatic vertebrates has recently been used to estimate the presence of a species. We hypothesized that fish release DNA into the water at a rate commensurate with their biomass. Thus, the concentration of eDNA of a target species may be used to estimate the species biomass. We developed an eDNA method to estimate the biomass of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using laboratory and field experiments. In the aquarium, the concentration of eDNA changed initially, but reached an equilibrium after 6 days. Temperature had no effect on eDNA concentrations in aquaria. The concentration of eDNA was positively correlated with carp biomass in both aquaria and experimental ponds. We used this method to estimate the biomass and distribution of carp in a natural freshwater lagoon. We demonstrated that the distribution of carp eDNA concentration was explained by water temperature. Our results suggest that biomass data estimated from eDNA concentration reflects the potential distribution of common carp in the natural environment. Measuring eDNA concentration offers a non-invasive, simple, and rapid method for estimating biomass. This method could inform management plans for the conservation of ecosystems.
Ajiraporn, Kongpol , Junichi, Kato , Takahisa, Tajima , Alisa, S.Vangnai ; Microbes and Environments Vol.27 no.1 page.30-35 (2012) ; A Gram-positive marine bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81, was isolated as a hydrophilic organic-solvent tolerant bacterium, and exhibited high tolerance to various types of toxic hydrophilic organic solvents, including acetonitrile, at relatively high concentrations (up to 6% [v/v]) under the growing conditions. Investigation of its tolerance mechanisms illustrated that it does not rely on solvent inactivation processes or modification of cell surface characteristics, but rather, increase of the cell size lowers solvent partitioning into cells and the extrusion of solvents through the efflux system. A test using efflux pump inhibitors suggested that secondary transporters, i.e. resistance nodulation cell division (RND) and the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, are involved in acetonitrile tolerance in this strain. In addition, its acetonitrile tolerance ability could be stably and significantly enhanced by repetitive growth in the presence of toxic acetonitrile. The marked acetonitrile tolerance of Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81 indicates its potential use as a host for biotechnological fermentation processes as well as bioremediation.